Prof. Izlin Ismail, Faculty of Business and Accountancy, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.
Dr. Teoman Duman, International Burch University Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Prof. Angelo Santagostino, University of Brescia, Italy.
Mr. Thomsas Winter, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany.
Dr. Geoff Kay, City University, London.
Dr. D.M.Semasinghe, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka.
Dr. Ziasma, University of Karachi, Karachi
Prof. Asim Jamal Siddiqui, University of Karachi, Pakistan
Prof Dr Arshad Syed Karim, Dean of Information Technology & Humanities NED University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi, Pakistan
Prof Anoma Abhayaratne, Department of Economics and Statistics, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
Dr. Domingos Santos, Sub-Director, Institute of Politecnico de Castelo Branco, Portugal
Dr. Javier Poncela Gonzalez, Department ETSI Telecomunication, University of Malaga, Spain.
Ms. Alessia Lefebure, Director Alliance Program, Columbia University, New York
Prof Pranas Zukauskas, Faculty of Economics and Management, Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania.
Prof Dr. Fasihul Alam, Department of Management Studies, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh.
Prof. Subas K.C., Dean, Kathmandu University, School of Management, Nepal
Mr. Peter N. Stearns, Provost and Executive Vice President, George Mason University, Virginia.
Ms. Deng Xinghua, Director, University of Science and Technology, China.
Prof. Dr. Dietrich Steude, Fachhochschule Erfurt University of Applied Sciences, Berlin, Germany.
Mr. Jurgen Gau, Dipl.-Ing., Dipl.-Wirtsch.-Ing., Donarweg, Munich, Germany.
Mr. Horst Stenzel, Concepts Consulting Production, Stenzelfilm, Selma-Lagerlof-STR., Munich, Germany.
Mr. Hartmut Wellerdt, Marketing Consultant, Bremin University, Germany.
Dr. Silvia Scaramuzzi, Head of International Relations Department of Economics and Management, University of Florence (Italy).
Prof. Dr Mehtab Karim, School of Public Policy, George Mason University, USA
Dr. Shahid Hasan Siddiqui, Research Institute for Islamic Banking and Finance
Dr. K.M. Larik, Iqra University, Karachi, Pakistan
Dr. Javed Iqbal, Institute of Business Administration, IBA, Karachi, Pakistan
Dr. Rashid A. Naeem, Department of Economics and Management Sciences, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan
Dr. Abdul Wahab Suri, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Abdul Waheed, University Behrain, Kingdom of Behrain
Dr. Naveed, Institute of Business Administration (IBA), Karachi, Pakistan
Dr. Moazzam Khan Sherwani, Institute of Environment Studies, University of Karachi
Dr. Samiuzzaman, Global Environmental Lab (Pvt) Ltd. Korangi, Karachi, Pakistan
Dr. Anila Ambar Malik, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
Dr. Seema Munaf, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
Dr. Nabeel A. Zubairi, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
Dr. Zainab F. Zadeh, Bahria University, Karachi , Pakistan
Dr. Muhammad Zubair Mumtaz, School of Social Science and Humanties, National University of Science and Technology (NUST), Islamabad
Dr. Yasmin Zafar, Institute of Business Administration (IBA), Karachi
Dr. Uzma Parveen, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
Dr. Muhammad Mahmood, Khadim Ali Shah Bukhari Institute of Technology, Karachi
Dr. Abuzar Wajidi, Meritorious Professor of Public Administration, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
Dr. Noreen Rafi, Dept of Psychology, University, Lahore, Pakistan
Ms. Rubina Feroz, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
Dr. Muhammad Zaki, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
Dr. Zaira Wahab, Iqra University, Karachi, Pakistan
Dr. Ismail Saad, Iqra University, Karachi, Pakistan
Mr. Naim Farooqui, Sindh Bank Ltd, Karachi, Pakistan
Dr. Sara Azhar, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
Prof. Ahmad Farooq Shah, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
Dr. Tariq Jalees, College of Management Sciences, Karachi Institute of Economics and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan
Dr. Fatima Imam, Federal Urdu University, Karachi, Pakistan
Mr. Imran Naveed, State Bank of Pakistan, Karachi, Pakistan
Mr. M. Mazhar Khan, State Bank of Pakistan, Karachi, Pakistan
Mr. Qaisar Mufti, Qaisar Mufti Associates, Shahra-e-Iraq Saddar, Karachi, Pakistan
Dr. Khan Brohi, Institute of Environmental Engineering and Management, Jamshoro, Pakistan
Dr. Tanveer Anjum, Department of Business Communications, Iqra University, Karachi, Pakistan
Mr. Muhammad Zubair, Department of Islamic History, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
Mr. Amir Hussain, Applied Economics Research Centre (AERC), Unveristy of Karachi
Dr. Aliya Zahid, Anatomy Department, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, Pak
Dr. Qurrat-ul-ain, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan
Dr. Atif Mahmood, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan
Dr. M. Adnan Kanpurwala, Dept. of Physiology, Dow University Karachi, Pakistan
Dr. Uzma Ali, Institute of Clinical Psychology, Karachi, Pakistan
Dr. Ali Rizvi, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei
Dr. Muhammad Usman Awan, Institute of Quality & Technology Managment, Lahore, Pakistan
Dr. Amber Gul Rashid, IBA, Karachi, Pakistan
Dr. Shazia Ghani, Prime Minister’s Performance Delivery Unit Prime Minister’s Office, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Dr. Salman Razavi, Hailey College, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan
Mr. Obaid ur Rehman, Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan, Karachi, Pakistan
Dr. Muhammad Saleem, Banking Service Corporation, State Bank of Pakistan, Karach,i Pakistan
Mr. Abdul Wahid, Department of Management Sciences, National University of Modern Languages (NUML), Islamabad, Pakistan
Dr. Afshan Huma, Dept of Educational Planning Policy Studies and Leadership, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan
Mr. M. Nasir Khan, Deputy Director (Insurance), Securities & Exchange Commission of Pakistan
Abdul Saboor, Apna Micro Finance Bank, Vehari, Pakistan
Mr. Saghir Ahmed Khan, Senior Offcials of Income Tax Department, Government of Pakistan
Dr. Khalida Tanveer, Federal Urdu University, Karachi, Pakistan
Dr. Shahid Habib, Department of Governance and Public Policy, National University of Modern Languages (NUML), Islamabad
Mr. Usman Aslam, Superior University, Lahore, Pakistan
Table of Contents
The Scientific and Research publications of the faculty members and scholars are an important source of gathering updated information. This updated and recent information plays a pivotal role in the development and economy of the country. The Karachi University Journal of Science has been publishing valuable research papers of the faculty members and scholars in the field of physical, biological and marine disciplines. The research contributions published in the compendium are not only helpful in updating the knowledge but it is also an important source for decision making and opens new horizons for the researchers. I am sure that the publication of this volume of the Journal of Science shall be well received by all the stakeholders and encourage new research activities among the faculty members and promising research scholars.
We publish the journal namely, Karachi University journal of Science. Our goal is to create a new forum for exchange of information on all aspects of Science. Future scope of the Karachi University journal of Science is open to your suggestions. I would like to encourage you to submit original research notes. I wish to see Karachi University journal of Science develop as an advance scientific journal with the balance, changing toward research communication rather than remain a bulletin. The success of this enterprise depends on your response. I would appreciate your feedback.