Electronic governance or e-governance is the application of information and communication technology (ICT) for delivering government services, exchange of information, communication transactions, integration of various stand-alone systems and services between government-to-citizen (G2C), government-to-business (G2B), government-to-government (G2G) , government-to-employees (G2E) as well as back office processes and interactions within the entire government framework. Through e-governance, government services will be made available to citizens in a convenient, efficient and transparent manner. The three main target groups that can be distinguished in governance concepts are government, citizens and businesses/interest groups. In e-governance there are no distinct boundaries.
Generally four basic models are available – government-to-citizen (customer), government-to-employees, government-to-government and government-to-business.
Distinction from e-government
Main article: E-government
Both terms are treated to be the same; however, there is a difference between the two. "E-government" is the use of the ICTs in public administration – combined with organizational change and new skills – to improve public services and democratic processes and to strengthen support to public. The problem in this definition to be congruence definition of e-governance is that there is no provision for governance of ICTs. As a matter of fact, the governance of ICTs requires most probably a substantial increase in regulation and policy-making capabilities, with all the expertise and opinion-shaping processes along the various social stakeholders of these concerns. So, the perspective of the e-governance is "the use of the technologies that both help governing and have to be governed". The public–private partnership (PPP)-based e-governance projects are hugely successful in India.
Many countries are looking forward to a corruption-free government. E-government is one-way communication protocol whereas e-governance is two-way communication protocol. The essence of e-governance is to reach the beneficiary and ensure that the services intended to reach the desired individual has been met with. There should be an auto-response to support the essence of e-governance, whereby the Government realizes the efficacy of its governance. E-governance is by the governed, for the governed and of the governed.
Establishing the identity of the end beneficiary is a challenge in all citizen-centric services. Statistical information published by governments and world bodies does not always reveal the facts. The best form of e-governance cuts down on unwanted interference of too many layers while delivering governmental services. It depends on good infrastructural setup with the support of local processes and parameters for governments to reach their citizens or end beneficiaries. Budget for planning, development and growth can be derived from well laid out e-governance systems
Government to citizen
The goal of government-to-citizen (G2C) e-governance is to offer a variety of ICT services to citizens in an efficient and economical manner, and to strengthen the relationship between government and citizens using technology.
There are several methods of government-to-customer e-governance. Two-way communication allows citizens to instant message directly with public administrators, and cast remote electronic votes (electronic voting) and instant opinion voting. Transactions such as payment of services, such as city utilities, can be completed online or over the phone. Mundane services such as name or address changes, applying for services or grants, or transferring existing services are more convenient and no longer have to be completed face to face.
G2C e-Governance is unbalanced across the globe as not everyone has Internet access and computing skills, but the United States, European Union, and Asia are ranked the top three in development.
The Federal Government of the United States has a broad framework of G2C technology to enhance citizen access to Government information and services. Benefits.Gov is an official US government website that informs citizens of benefits they are eligible for and provides information of how to apply assistance. US State Governments also engage in G2C interaction through the Department of Transportation, Department of Public Safety, United States Department of Health and Human Services, United States Department of Education, and others. As with e-Governance on the global level, G2C services vary from state to state. The Digital States Survey ranks states on social measures, digital democracy, e-commerce, taxation, and revenue. The 2012 report shows Michigan and Utah in the lead and Florida and Idaho with the lowest scores. Municipal governments in the United States also use government-to-customer technology to complete transactions and inform the public. Much like states, cities are awarded for innovative technology. Government Technology's "Best of the Web 2012" named Louissville, KY, Arvada, CO, Raleigh, NC, Riverside, CA, and Austin, TX the top five G2C city portals.
European countries were ranked second among all geographic regions. The Single Point of Access for Citizens of Europe supports travel within Europe and eEurope is a 1999 initiative supporting online government. Main focuses are to provide public information, allow customers to have access to basic public services, simplify online procedures, and promote electronic signatures.
Asia is ranked third in comparison, and there are diverse G2C programs between countries. Singapore's eCitizen Portal is an organized single access point to government information and services. South Korea's Home Tax Service (HTS) provides citizens with 24/7 online services such as tax declaration. Taiwan has top ranking G2C technology including an online motor vehicle services system, which provides 21 applications and payment services to citizens.
Government-to-Citizen is the communication link between a government and private individuals or residents. Such G2C communication most often refers to that which takes place through Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), but can also include direct mail and media campaigns. G2C can take place at the federal, state, and local levels. G2C stands in contrast to G2B, or Government-to-Business networks.
One such Federal G2C network is USA.gov: the United States' official web portal, though there are many other examples from governments around the world.
A full switch to government-to-customer e-governance will cost a large amount of money in development and implementation. In addition, Government agencies do not always engage citizens in the development of their e-Gov services or accept feedback. Customers identified the following barriers to government-to-customer e-governance: not everyone has Internet access, especially in rural or low income areas, G2C technology can be problematic for citizens who lack computing skills. some G2C sites have technology requirements (such as browser requirements and plug-ins) that won't allow access to certain services, language barriers, the necessity for an e-mail address to access certain services, and a lack of privacy.
Government to employees
"G2E" redirects here. For gaming trade show, see Global Gaming Expo.
E-Governance to Employee partnership (G2E) Is one of four main primary interactions in the delivery model of E-Governance. It is the relationship between online tools, sources, and articles that help employees maintain communication with the government and their own companies. E-Governance relationship with Employees allows new learning technology in one simple place as the computer. Documents can now be stored and shared with other colleagues online. E-governance makes it possible for employees to become paperless and makes it easy for employees to send important documents back and forth to colleagues all over the world instead of having to print out these records or faxG2E services also include software for maintaining personal information and records of employees. Some of the benefits of G2E expansion include:
- E-payroll – maintaining the online sources to view paychecks, pay stubs, pay bills, and keep records for tax information.
- E-benefits – be able to look up what benefits an employee is receiving and what benefits they have a right to.
- E-training – allows for new and current employees to regularly maintain the training they have through the development of new technology and to allow new employees to train and learn over new materials in one convenient location. E-learning is another way to keep employees informed on the important materials they need to know through the use of visuals, animation, videos, etc. It is usually a computer-based learning tool, although not always. It is also a way for employees to learn at their own pace (distance learning), although it can be instructor-led.
- Maintaining records of personal information – Allows the system to keep all records in one easy location to update with every single bit of information that is relevant to a personal file. Examples being social security numbers, tax information, current address, and other information
Government-to-employees (abbreviated G2E) is the online interactions through instantaneous communication tools between government units and their employees. G2E is one out of the four primary delivery models of e-Government.
G2E is an effective way to provide e-learning to the employees, bring them together and to promote knowledge sharing among them. It also gives employees the possibility of accessing information in regard to compensation and benefit policies, training and learning opportunities and civil rights laws. G2E services also includes software for maintaining personnel information and records of employees.
G2E is adopted in many countries including the United States, Hong Kong and New Zealand.
Government to government
From the start of 1990s e-commerce and e-product, there has rampant integration of e-forms of government process. Governments have now tried to use their efficiencies of their techniques to cut down on waste. E-government is a fairly broad subject matter, but all relate to how the services and representation are now delivered and how they are now being implemented.
Many governments around the world have gradually turned to Information technologies (IT) in an effort to keep up with today's demands. Historically, many governments in this sphere have only been reactive but up until recently there has been a more proactive approach in developing comparable services such things as e-commerce and e-business.
Before, the structure emulated private-like business techniques. Recently that has all changed as e-government begins to make its own plan. Not only does e-government introduce a new form of record keeping, it also continues to become more interactive to better the process of delivering services and promoting constituency participation.
The framework of such organization is now expected to increase more than ever by becoming efficient and reducing the time it takes to complete an objective. Some examples include paying utilities, tickets, and applying for permits. So far, the biggest concern is accessibility to Internet technologies for the average citizen. In an effort to help, administrations are now trying to aid those who do not have the skills to fully participate in this new medium of governance, especially now as e-government progressing to more e-governance terms
An overhaul of structure is now required as every pre-existing sub-entity must now merge under one concept of e- government. As a result, Public Policy has also seen changes due to the emerging of constituent participation and the Internet. Many governments such as Canada's have begun to invest in developing new mediums of communication of issues and information through virtual communication and participation. In practice this has led to several responses and adaptations by interest groups, activist, and lobbying groups. This new medium has changed the way the polis interacts with government.
The purpose to include e-governance to government is to means more efficient in various aspects. Whether it means to reduce cost by reducing paper clutter, staffing cost, or communicating with private citizens or public government. E-government brings many advantages into play such as facilitating information delivery, application process/renewal between both business and private citizen, and participation with constituency. There are both internal and external advantages to the emergence of IT in government, though not all municipalities are alike in size and participation.
In theory, there are currently 4 major levels of E-government in municipal governments:
- the establishment of a secure and cooperative interaction among governmental agencies;
- Web-based service delivery;
- the application of e-commerce for more efficient government transactions activities,;
- and digital democracy.
These, along with 5 degrees of technical integration and interaction of users include:
- simple information dissemination (one-way communication);
- two- way communication (request and response);
- service and financial transactions;
- integration (horizontal and vertical integration);
- political participation
The adoption of e-government in municipalities evokes greater innovation in e- governance by being specialized and localized. The level success and feedback depends greatly on the city size and government type. A council-manager government municipality typically works the best with this method, as opposed to mayor-council government positions, which tend to be more political. Therefore, they have greater barriers towards its application. Council-Manager governments are also more inclined to be effective here by bringing innovation and reinvention of governance to e- governance.
The International City/County Management Association and Public Technology Inc. have done surveys over the effectiveness of this method. The results are indicating that most governments are still in either the primary stages (1 or stage 2), which revolves around public service requests. Though application of integration is now accelerating, there has been little to no instigating research to see its progression as e-governance to government. We can only theorize it's still within the primitive stages of e-governance.
Government-to-Government (abbreviated G2G) is the online non-commercial interaction between Government organisations, departments, and authorities and other Government organisations, departments, and authorities. Its use is common in the UK, along with G2C, the online non-commercial interaction of local and central Government and private individuals, and G2B the online non-commercial interaction of local and central Government and the commercial business sector.
G2G systems generally come in one of two types: Internal facing - joining up a single Governments departments, agencies, organisations and authorities - examples include the integration aspect of the Government Gateway, and the UK NHS Connecting for HealthData SPINE. External facing - joining up multiple Governments IS systems - an example would include the integration aspect of the Schengen Information System (SIS), developed to meet the requirements of the Schengen Agreement.
The strategic objective of e-governance, or in this case G2G is to support and simplify governance for government, citizens and businesses. The use of ICT can connect all parties and support processes and activities. Other objectives are to make government administration more transparent, speedy and accountable, while addressing the society's needs and expectations through efficient public services and effective interaction between the people, businesses and government.
Within every of those interaction domains, four sorts of activities take place:
Pushing data over the internet, e.g.: regulative services, general holidays, public hearing schedules, issue briefs, notifications, etc. two-way communications between one governmental department and another, users will interact in dialogue with agencies and post issues, comments, or requests to the agency. Conducting transactions, e.g.: Lodging tax returns, applying for services and grants. Governance, e.g.: To alter the national transition from passive info access to individual participation by:
- Informing the individual
- Representing an individual
- Consulting an individual
- Involving the individual
Internal G2G (UK)
In the field of networking, the Government Secure Intranet (GSI) puts in place a secure link between central government departments. It is an IP-based virtual private network based on broadband technology introduced in April 1998 and further upgraded in February 2004. Among other things it offers a variety of advanced services including file transfer and search facilities, directory services, email exchange facilities (both between network members and over the Internet) as well as voice and video services. An additional network is currently also under development: the Public Sector Network (PSN) will be the network to interconnect public authorities (including departments and agencies in England; devolved administrations and local governments) and facilitate in particular sharing of information and services among each other.
Government to business
"G2B" redirects here. For the scientific journal, see Genes, Brain and Behavior.
Government-to-Business (G2B) is the online non-commercial interaction between local and central government and the commercial business sector with the purpose of providing businesses information and advice on e-business 'best practices'. G2B:Refers to the conduction through the Internet between government agencies and trading companies. B2G:Professional transactions between the company and the district, city, or federal regulatory agencies. B2G usually include recommendations to complete the measurement and evaluation of books and contracts.
The objective of G2B is to reduce difficulties for business, provide immediate information and enable digital communication by e-business (XML). In addition, the government should re-use the data in the report proper, and take advantage of commercial electronic transaction protocol. Government services are concentrated to the following groups: human services; community services; judicial services; transport services; land resources; business services; financial services and other. Each of the components listed above for each cluster of related services to the enterprise.
Benefits for business
E-government reduces costs and lowers the barrier of allowing companies to interact with the government. The interaction between the government and businesses reduces the time required for businesses to conduct a transaction. For instance, there is no need to commute to a government agency's office, and transactions may be conducted online instantly with the click of a mouse. This significantly reduces transaction time for the government and businesses alike.
E-Government provides a greater amount of information that business needed, also it makes those information more clear. A key factor in business success is the ability to plan for the future. Planning and forecasting through data-driven future. The government collected a lot of economic, demographic and other trends in the data. This makes the data more accessible to companies which may increase the chance of economic prosperity.
In addition, E-Government can help businesses navigate through government regulations by providing an intuitive site organization with a wealth of useful applications. The electronic filings of applications for environmental permits gives an example of it. Companies often do not know how, when, and what they must apply. Therefore, failure to comply with environmental regulations up to 70%, a staggering figure most likely to confusion about the requirements, rather than the product of willful disregard of the law.
The government should concern that not all people are able to access the internet to gain on-line government services. The network reliability, as well as information on government bodies can influence public opinion and prejudice hiden agenda. There are many considerations and implementation, designing e-government, including the potential impact of government and citizens of disintermediation, the impact on economic, social and political factors, vulnerable to cyber attacks, and disturbances to the status quo in these areas.
G2B rises the connection between government and businesses. Once the e-government began to develop, become more sophisticated, people will be forced to interact with e-government in the larger area. This may result in a lack of privacy for businesses as their government get their more and more information. In the worst case, there is so much information in the electron transfer between the government and business, a system which is like totalitarian could be developed. As government can access more information, the loss privacy could be a cost.
The government site does not consider about "potential to reach many users including those who live in remote areas, are homebound, have low literacy levels, exist on poverty line incomes."
- e-Tender Box (ETB) system – ETB system was developed by Government Logistics Department (GLD) to replace Electronic Tendering System. Users can use ETB system to download the resources and gain the service from the GLD.
- e-Procurement Programme – e-Procurement Programme provide a simple, convenient on-line ways for suppliers of the participating bureaux/departments (B/Ds) and suppliers of Government Logistics Department and agree to provide the low-valued goods and service.
- Finance and support for your business – UK Government provide the on-line financial help for business, including grants, loans, business guide; what's more, it also offer the funding for the sunrise businesses (just start) or small-scale firms.
The Main Goal of Government to Business – is to increase productivity by giving business more access to information in a more organize manner while lowering the cost of doing business as well as the ability to cut "red tape", save time, reduce operational cost and to create a more transparent business environment when dealing with government.
- Lowering cost of doing business – electronic transaction save time compared to conducting business in person.
- Cutting red tape – rules and regulation placed upon business normally take time and are most likely to cause a delay- in (G2B) will allow a much faster process with less delays and decreasing the number of rules and regulations
- Transparency – More information will be available, making G2B easier to communicate.
Government to business key points:
- Reduce the burden on business by adopting a process that enables collecting data once for multiple uses and streamlining redundant data.
- Key lines of business: regulations, economic development, trade, permits/licenses, grants/loans, and asset management.
Difference between G2B and B2G
- Government to business (G2B) – Refers to the conducting of transactions between government bodies and business via internet.
- Business to government (B2G) – Professional affairs conducted between companies and regional, municipal, or federal governing bodies. B2G typically encompasses the determination and evaluation of proposal and completion of contract.
The overall benefit of e-governance when dealing with business is that it enables business to perform more efficiently.
Challenges – international position
E-governance is facing numerous challenges world over. These challenges are arising from administrative, legal, institutional and technological factors.
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E-governance of late has made significant strides, and the government, both at the centre and the state level are approaching the issue with a sense of purpose and commitment. The sense of urgency has been instilled owing to advent of new technologies, development of appropriate content coupled with the interest evinced by the international agencies as also the appreciation given to the government functionaries to rise to the occasion to deliver to the citizen’s good governance. This is also reflected in the recent Union Budget, which has earmarked significant resources, in spite of budgetary constraints.
E-Governance is being promoted as a matter of priority as it induces a transparent working in the government, and catalyses efficiency. The happier note stems from the fact that both the President and the Prime Minister of Indian have shown the urgency in the promotion and implementation of e-Governance programmers all for the cause of the common man in the country. No doubt this is no less a daunting task. Issues of budget, costs of technology, connectivity, affordability, accessibility of ICT services are still roadblocks to e- Governance initiatives in the country.
Recent e-Governance Initiatives
That e-Governance efforts in India are on the upswing has been recently demonstrated more than once. The latest in the series is the e-Governance project MCA-21of the Ministry of Company Affairs launched by the Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. On the occasion, the Prime Minister has once again expressed the UPA regime’s commitment to go ahead with various e-Governance initiatives. MCA-21: On March 18, 2006, the project MCA-21 was launched as an initiative of the Ministry of Company Affairs (MCA) as a flagship e-Governance project of the Government of India, covering the core services vis-à- vis the Ministry. Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) shall be the operator of the product to be implemented in 60 week’s time frame across all MCA locations. The implementation of the project is scheduled in two phases. The project is being launched as a visionary one in nature aiming at repositioning the Ministry as a modern and dynamic one with latest information technology solutions. One of the objectives is to ensure a paperless office with a record 6 crore (0.6 millions) pages of company documents to be digitized for the purpose and stored in National ID Card: One important benchmark for e-Governance has been pointed put as issuance of a national citizen ID card. The Indian subsidiary of Oracle Corporation for the purpose, Oracle India had announced an initiative in September 2005, of issuing national identity cards, christened as Multipurpose National Identity cards (MNIC) to Indian citizens, in collaboration with the Union Home Ministry. The role of the MNIC would be to provide a unique National Identity Number to every citizen.
e-Governance : Budget no crunch
The implementation of e-Governance must have received a tremendous boost with the Union Finance Minister in his recent budget coming out with a road map suggesting this be achieved by a three-pronged strategy by implementing it at the central level, at the level to the state and by integration between agencies wherever its need is felt. The road map would cost about Rs. 5,000 crores to implement it across the country. Observers have pointed out that the objectives of NeGP seems to have been addressed partially as the budget has announced that 26 projects for computerization of data of the banks and insurance companies would be initiated this financial year.
Even though implementation of e-Governance has seen some light of the day, yet this is still to find some eminence and focus in the budget of various state governments in the country. A number of e-Governance initiatives have been launched across many states in India with a missionary zeal though the results are mixed. States like Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Goa, Uttranchal, Mdhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Punjab and the Union Territory Chandigarh and Delhi Administrations have taken a lead in initiating various e-Gov projects like services delivery to citizens online. However, states like Bihar, Jharkhand, Jammu and Kashmir and Manipur are yet to take any significant step in this Hyderabad first and e- governance project set up under the aegis of the Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, has been conferred with Golden Icon National Award 2005 for outstanding innovations in e-governance by the Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances, Government of India. Adding another feather in its e-gov ventures, the state government of Karnataka has taken a major leap in e-governance, by computerization of whole of the treasury operations of the state called as Khajane, which is Kannada, to treasury. The Ninth National Conference on e-governance bestowed it the Silver Icon for outstanding performance in service deliverance in the professional category. This Khajana initiative has ushered in an era of transparency in financial Jharkhand, the eastern state, has become the first in India to launch and implement the ambitious Rs. 15,000 crore special national e-Governance plan. The state has embarked on a state natural resources management system that would map the natural resources of the state and also monitor its excavation and production by deploying GIS and remote sensing. IT expertise and services from Sweden has been solicited by the Department of IT, India, to facilitate setting up e-governance service and modules in 1, 00,000 villages of India. In similar vein, soliciting voice recognition technology like GPON from Japan is seen as a logical step given the country’s tryst with oral traditions. It is expected that voice recognition software could overcome the barrier of literacy and facilitate faster implementation of e-governance. One important aspect of these tie-ups is seen in overcoming budgetary constraints for india in launching and implementing IT and ICT projects in the country.
So far so good. The launch, motivations, awards and initiatives are all good indicators of e-governance mode of governance in the country and in her respective state. The satisfaction lies in the urgency to implement various projects to deliver services to the citizens of the country yet the goals of various initiatives have to be defined, together with issues of funding, security, monitoring and sustaining the projects. This apart, the issue of digital divides, whether e-governance programs have taken steps to bridge technology gaps in society is critical for any e-governance programmers. One realizes whether this can be done through a nation level initiatives, to tap the pool of experts which has its concentration in the private sector, especially in According to Kiley Report, if the 15 th and 16 th centuries were about exploring and opening up of the planet, the late 20 th and 21th centuries are about the exploration of new terra incognita of the mind and the shift that is taking place in the mind. This is all about acceleration of the mind the joining up of information and knowledge faster than the speed of light. This creates exponential growth, sets the climate for originality and the birth of With the advent of e-governance human knowledge is doubling every seven to ten years. Communication is now almost instantaneous. Few developments, if any in the modern history of public administration and governance have been as heralded as the coming of electronic governance. E-governance is not simply about automating current ways of doing business. With the new tools of a networked society, governance must re- think and re-engineer itself. E-governance is not merely computerizing existing governance; it is transforming the existing governance. E-G is the ICT-enabled route to achieve good governance as it integrates people, processes, information and technology for achieving governance goals. E-governance involves new styles of leadership, new ways of deciding policy, new ways of accessing education, acquiring knowledge and delivering information and services.