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Conclusion For An Essay On Earthquakes

An earthquake (or quakes, tremors) is the shaking of the surface of the earth, caused by the sudden movement in the Tectonic Plates. They can be extremely violent or cannot be felt by anyone.

Earthquakes are usually quite brief, but may repeat. They are the result of a sudden release of energy in the Tectonic Plates. This creates seismic waves, which are waves of energy that travel through the Earth. The study of earthquakes is called seismology.[1]Seismology studies the frequency, type and size of earthquakes over a period of time.

There are large earthquakes and small earthquakes. Large earthquakes can take down buildings and cause death and injury. Earthquakes are measured using observations from seismometers. The magnitude of an earthquake, and the intensity of shaking, is usually reported on the Richter scale.The Richter Scale was invented by Charles Francis Richter in 1935. On the scale, 3 or less is scarcely noticeable, and magnitude 5 (or more) causes damage over a wide area.

An earthquake under the ocean can cause a tsunami. This can cause just as much death and destruction as the earthquake itself. Landslides can happen, too. Earthquakes are part of the Earth's rock cycle. The impact can be measured by a seismometer. It detects the vibrations caused by an earthquake. It puts these movement on a seismograph. The strength, or magnitude, of an earthquake is measured using the Richter scale. The Richter scale is numbered 0-9.

Scientists have never predicted a major earthquake before. They do know where earthquakes may occur, such as close to the fault lines. 

When earthquakes occur the Richter Scale draws how big it is and how big its getting. 

Mitigation Strategies- If you are indoors:-

  • Take cover under a table or bench. If there is no table or desk, sit against a wall away from things that might fall on you and away from windows, bookcases or tall, heavy furniture.
  • Wait in your safety spot until the shaking stops and then check to see if you are hurt. Check others around you too. Move carefully and look out for fallen things.
  • There may be aftershocks or smaller earthquakes quite soon after. So be prepared.
  • If you want to leave the building after the shaking stops , use the stairs, never use lifts.

If you are outdoors :-

  • Stay outside and move away from buildings, trees, lights and power lines. Crouch down and cover your head!

History[change | change source]

Earthquakes sometimes hit cities and kill hundreds of thousands of people. Most earthquakes happen along the Pacific Ring of Fire but the biggest ones mostly happen in other places. Tectonically active places are places where earthquakes or volcanic eruptions are frequent.

The ancient Chinese used a device that looked like a jar with dragons on the top surrounded by frogs with their mouths open. When an earthquake occurred, a ball in each dragon's mouth would drop out of the dragon's mouth into the frog's. The position of the frog which received a ball indicated the direction of the earthquake. This was one of the first tools to help figure out where an earthquake originated from.

Causes of an earthquake[change | change source]

Main article: plate tectonics

Earthquakes are caused by tectonic movements in the Earth's crust. The main cause is that when tectonic plates , one rides over the other, causing orogeny collide (mountain building), earthquakes.

The boundaries between moving plates form the largest fault surfaces on Earth. When they stick, relative motion between the plates leads to increasing stress. This continues until the stress rises and breaks, suddenly allowing sliding over the locked portion of the fault, releasing the stored energy as shock waves. Such faults are San Andreas fault in San Francisco , Rift valley in Africa etc

Earthquake fault types[change | change source]

There are three main types of geological fault that may cause an earthquake: normal, reverse (thrust) and strike-slip. Normal faults occur mainly in areas where the crust is being extended. Reverse faults occur in areas where the crust is being shortened. Strike-slip faults are steep structures where the two sides of the fault slip horizontally past each other.

Earthquake clusters[change | change source]

Most earthquakes form part of a sequence, related to each other in terms of location and time.[2] Most earthquake clusters consist of small tremors which cause little to no damage, but there is a theory that earthquakes can recur in a regular pattern.[3]

A foreshock is an earthquake that occurs before a larger earthquake, called the mainshock.

An aftershock is an earthquake that occurs after a previous earthquake, the mainshock. An aftershock is in the same region of the main shock but always of a smaller magnitude. Aftershocks are formed as the crust adjusts to the effects of the main shock.[2]

Earthquake swarms are sequences of earthquakes striking in a specific area within a short period of time. They are different from earthquakes followed by a series of aftershocks by the fact that no single earthquake in the sequence is obviously the main shock, therefore none have notably higher magnitudes than the other. An example of an earthquake swarm is the 2004 activity at Yellowstone National Park.[4]

Sometimes a series of earthquakes occur in a sort of earthquake storm, where the earthquakes strike a fault in clusters, each triggered by the shaking or stress redistribution of the previous earthquakes. Similar to aftershocks but on adjacent segments of fault, these storms occur over the course of years, and with some of the later earthquakes as damaging as the early ones. Such a pattern occurred in the North Anatolian fault in Turkey in the 20th century.[5][6]

Tsunami[change | change source]

Main article: Tsunami

Tsunami or a chain of fast moving waves in the ocean caused by powerful earthquakes is a very serious challenge for people's safety and for earthquake engineering. Those waves can inundate coastal areas, destroy houses and even swipe away whole towns.[7] This is a danger for the whole mankind.

Unfortunately, tsunamis can not be prevented. However, there are warning systems[8] which may warn the population before the big waves reach the land to let them enough time to rush to safety.

Earthquake-proofing[change | change source]

Main article: Earthquake engineering

Some places, such as Japan or California, have many earthquakes and many inhabitants. There, it is good practice to construct houses and other buildings which will resist collapse in an earthquake. This is called seismic design or "earthquake-proofing".

Earthquake-proof buildings are constructed to withstand the destructive force of an earthquake. This depends upon its type of construction, shape, mass distribution, and rigidity. Different combinations are used. Square, rectangular, and shell-shaped buildings can withstand earthquakes better than skyscrapers. To reduce stress, a building's ground floor can be supported by extremely rigid, hollow columns, while the rest of the building is supported by flexible columns inside the hollow columns. Another method is to use rollers or rubber pads to separate the base columns from the ground, allowing the columns to shake parallel to each other during an earthquake.

To help prevent a roof from collapsing, builders make the roof out of light-weight materials. Outdoor walls are made with stronger and more reinforced materials such as steel or reinforced concrete. During an earthquake flexible windows may help hold the windows together so they don’t break.

Sources[change | change source]

  1. Earth Science. Austin, Texas 78746-6487: Holt, Rinehart Winston. 2001. ISBN 0-03-055667-8. 
  2. 2.02.1"What are aftershocks, foreshocks, and earthquake clusters?". 
  3. "Repeating earthquakes". United States Geological Survey. January 29, 2009. Retrieved May 11, 2009. 
  4. "Earthquake swarms at Yellowstone". USGS. Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  5. ↑Amos Nur (2000). "Poseidon’s horses: plate tectonics and earthquake storms in the late [Bronze Age Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean"]. Journal of Archaeological Science27: 43–63. doi:10.1006/jasc.1999.0431. ISSN 0305-4403. http://water.stanford.edu/nur/EndBronzeage.pdf. 
  6. "Earthquake storms". Horizon (BBCtv series). 9pm 1 April 2003. Retrieved 2007-05-02. 
  7. ↑USGS Poster of the Near the East Coast of Honshu, Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011 - Magnitude 8.9
  8. ↑Pacific Tsunamy Warning Center

Other websites[change | change source]

Replica of ancient seismometer with pendulum sensitive to ground tremors. In Luoyang in 133 AD, it detected an earthquake 400 to 500 km (250 to 310 mi) away
Animation of the 2011 Sendai tsunami.

annualized cost of $2.9 million/year, for a total 20-year cost of $57.3 million. On-going operations and maintenance costs after the initial 20-year period are unknown.

12. Physics-based Simulations of Earthquake Damage and Loss. Integrate knowledge gained in Tasks 1, 13, 14, and 16 to enable robust, fully coupled simulations of fault rupture, seismic wave propagation through bedrock, and soil-structure response, to compute reliable estimates of financial loss, business interruption, and casualties; 5-year annualized cost of $6 million/year, for a total 20-year cost of $120 million.

13. Techniques for Evaluation and Retrofit of Existing Buildings. Develop analytical methods that predict the response of existing buildings with known levels of reliability based on integrated laboratory research and numerical simulations, and improve consensus standards for seismic evaluation and rehabilitation; 5-year annualized cost of $22.9 million/year, for a total 20-year cost of $543.6 million.

14. Performance-based Earthquake Engineering for Buildings. Advance performance-based earthquake engineering knowledge and develop implementation tools to improve design practice, inform decision-makers, and revise codes and standards for buildings, lifelines, and geo-structures; 5-year annualized cost of $46.7 million/year, for a total 20-year cost of $891.5 million.

15. Guidelines for Earthquake-Resilient Lifeline Systems. Conduct lifelines-focused collaborative research to better characterize infrastructure network vulnerability and resilience as the basis for the systematic review and updating of existing lifelines standards and guidelines, with targeted pilot programs and demonstration projects; 5-year annualized cost of $5 million/year, for a total 20-year cost of $100 million.

16. Next Generation Sustainable Materials, Components, and Systems. Develop and deploy new high-performance materials, components, and framing systems that are green and/or adaptive; the 5-year annualized cost of $8.2 million/year, for a total 20-year cost of $334.4 million.

17. Knowledge, Tools, and Technology Transfer to/from the Private Sector. Initiate a program to encourage and coordinate technology transfer across the NEHRP domain to ensure the deployment of state-of-the-art mitigation techniques across the nation, particularly in regions of moderate seismic hazard; 5-year annualized cost of $8.4 million/year, for a total 20-year cost of $168 million.

18. Earthquake-Resilient Community and Regional Demonstration Projects. Support and guide community-based earthquake resiliency pilot projects to apply NEHRP-generated and other knowledge to improve awareness, reduce risk, and improve emergency preparedness and recovery capacity; 5-year annualized cost of $15.6 million/year, for a total 20-year cost of $1 billion.