Pakistan is not a failed state but a badly governed one. Good governance is the inevitable element of a state the absence of which deteriorates the public welfare. With measured reforms and institutionalization, governance can be made better in the country.
2. Attributes of Good Governance
- General Public Welfare and State's Health
- Health, Education, Standard of Living
- Provision of fundamental rights
- Provision of Basic Necessities
3. Crisis of Good Governance in Pakistan
- Sectors badly governed in Pakistan
- Institutions badly governed in Pakistan
4. Causes of Good-Governance Crisis
- Personalization rather than institutionalization
- Corruption and nepotism
- Ineffective short-term policies
- Wrongly set priorities
- Weak accountability
- Weak state governing institutions
- Political instability
5. Reforms and Institution Building
- Strengthening the state institutions
- Making the state institutions independent of undue influence
- Effective implementation of laws
- Empowering accountability and law-enforcing agencies
- Ensuring political stability and nurturing the healthy growth of democratic system
6. Contemporary Governance in Pakistan
Pakistan is a state rich in resources and talent but badly governed. A brief history of country since 1947 reveals how different modes of governance have been brought into experiment under various civil and military regimes in Pakistan.
Good governance, in general, refers to the measures of a government which bring welfare to the public lives and state as a whole. Contrary to that, crisis of good governance is the continuous failure of a government to govern the state and its subjects effectively. Scales to measure good governance varies just as vary its levels in different government sectors.
If Pakistan is considered under the said definition, it gets obvious that the governments of the country failed most of the time in governing it well. The reasons behind this failure are mostly found in the factors of corruption, immoral politics, authoritarianism and dearth of leadership.
Crisis of good governance in Pakistan is not a new concept. It has been contested for a long time. Even today, when the neighboring country like China has evolved from its roots into a well governed state, Pakistan still lags behind in devising a clear mechanism of governance reforms and institution building.
Crisis of good governance can be understood only when one gets to know about the attributes and features of good governance. Among these attributes 'General Public Welfare and State's Health' come the first. Good governance is attributed with the welfare of the masses. If the people of a state are living a good life with all the fundamental rights and the basic necessitates secured, it can be said that the state is well governed. Another part of this is health of state. It can be measured in economic, defense and political strength of a country. A state when healthy in its defense and politico-economic outlooks is usually well governed. Further, good governance brings an overall better standard of life. It can be said in a way that the attributes of good governance vary in the eyes of a common man, a ruler and a state as a political entity.
Crisis of good governance is the name of a situation when all the attributes mentioned above are missing or replaced by the social and political abnormalities. These abnormalities can be in the form of agents which deteriorates the levels of good governance. Pakistan is in state of governance crisis. Its apparent manifestations can be seen in the declined public health, illiteracy and poverty. Another important way to judge the crisis of governance in Pakistan comes in shape of the weak state institutions and mismanaged state-controlled enterprises. For instance, the decline of Pakistan Steel Mills and Pakistan International Airlines speak how crisis of good governance swallowed these mighty revenue-producing sectors. Similarly, take example of judiciary as state institution. It has been suppressed by the executive throughout the history of the country. There has always been a rift at some level in civil and military leadership of country. This accounts for a major factor behind the crisis of good governance in Pakistan which comes in shape of clash between the state institutions thus adversely affecting their performance.
Among the primary causes of the crisis of good governance in Pakistan comes first the personalization of things rather that institutionalization. Institutions are important to every state. When these institutions become hostage to persons they begin to deviate from the principles of good governance. In Pakistan, during the military rules, the institutions of executive, legislature and even judiciary have brought into personalization of the ruling dictator. This helped in rendering the will of the dictator superior over the law of an institute.
Secondly, the factors of corruption and nepotism in a state like Pakistan puts it into governance crisis. These two things annihilate the state's governance structure as merit gets to be replaced by favor.
Thirdly, the lack of long term and well-read state policies becomes another important cause in bringing crisis of good governance. States are governed well through integrated long term planning and policies which are implemented in several episodes. In Pakistan, governments have plans to govern the country well but they collapse because of their short-term nature and politically motivated objectives.
Fourthly, the priorities of a government also determine the level of state governance. If a state brings the development of infrastructure as a priority over health, education and welfare of the masses when these all are required then the system collapses. In Pakistan, more is being spent on building infrastructure and little on provision of basic facilities like health, education and employment.
Fifthly, lack of accountability further volatiles the crisis of good governance. Even if the state officials are corrupt, the bad governance can be averted by holding them accountable. But when the institutions of accountability become subject to the will of the officials then the crisis becomes inevitable. In Pakistan the institution of accountability i.e. NAB is often subject of political controversies. Even the incumbent Prime Minister of Pakistan has discouraged NAB for its independent investigations.
Lastly, political instability in a state puts it into crisis of good governance. When a system of governance is not let to evolve and grow normally and political instability is created in the form of overthrowing a legitimate government, it becomes impossible for a state to ensure good governance.
In order to bring Pakistan out of the governance-crisis, reforms are essential. Among them comes first the institution building. This refers to de-personalization of state institutions. All the state institutions shall be let to work independently without any undue influence and blackmailing. Bringing judiciary and accountability institutions out of the influence of executive can help the country out of the crisis. Secondly, ensuring the smooth relations between the civil and military leadership can also help if not in ensuring good governance then at least in averting many causes of bad governance.
The Parliament of Pakistan has enacted laws nearly on all the major issues that a state and its masses may face. The problem lies in implementation of these laws. This is because of the weak law enforcing agencies. Empowering police as primary measure can help in improving the law and order situation of Pakistan which will ultimately help it in good governance.
Lastly, if the reforms and institution building are to be successfully brought in Pakistan, it is essential to ensure political stability and democratic evolution in here. Governance becomes good in democratic system for most of the times. Though it is not a general rule as many dictators have brought welfare to their people but that is an exception. In Pakistan strengthening the democratic system its forefathers chose will help in bringing it out of the crisis.
In the contemporary run, country might be facing the governance crisis but the evolving custom of political stability is a ray of hope. Unlike in the past, political government is being let to complete its constitutional tenure and then go for elections. That is a healthy development which is bringing Pakistan on the track of good governance. This along with strengthening the democratic practices will also help in minimizing the causes of the crisis. In compact, Pakistan has for long been facing the crisis of good governance but the contemporary political phase can ensure a positive change.
Local Government in Pakistan is a complex pattern, with distribution of power varying according to the local arrangements. Legislation concerning local government was enacted in the Local Government Ordinance, 2001, which outlines several levels of government.
(e.g. Rawalpindi Division)
(e.g. Jhelum District)
The District Coordination Officer is the administrative head of the District Administration. They have wide-ranging responsibility for overseeing, improving and directing the approved plans of the District Government.
The Zila Nazim used to be the executive head of the District Administration until 2010 when the government gave their powers to the District Coordination Officers also. Their role is similar to district governor or prefect, with responsibility for implementing government strategy and developing initiatives arising out of it.
In order to decentralize administrative and financial authority to be accountable to Local Governments, for good governance, effective delivery of services and transparent decision making through institutionalized participation of the people at grassroots level, elections to the local government institutions are held after every four years on none party basis by the Chief Election Commissioner of Pakistan.
Among the three tiers of local government, Tesil government is second tier of it. It is where the functions, responsibilities and authorities of districts government is divided into more smaller units, these units are know as "Tehsil". The Tehsils are used in all over the Pakistan except Sindh province where the word "Taluka"is used instead, although the functions and authorities are same. The head of the Tehsil government is "Tehsil Nazim"who is assist by the tehsil Naib-Nazim. Every tehsil have a Tehsil Municipal administration, consist of Tehsil council, Tehsil Nazim, tehsil/taluka municipal officer(TMO),Chief officer and other officials of local council.
Members of Union Council including Union Administrator and Vice Union Administrator are elected through direct elections based on adult franchise and on the basis of joint electorate. However, for the election to the reserved seats for Women in Zila Council proportionately divided among Tehsils or Towns shall be all members of the Union Councils in a Tehsil or Town. It is the responsibility of the Chief Election Commissioner to organize and conduct these elections.