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Fraud Essay Conclusion

1. The primary approach of detecting fraud is anonymous tips and complaints. An organization like business entity should guide employees to provide useful information and to provide various ways and methods for individuals to contribute such kind of information. On the other hand, when the organization received the information provided, it should have an effective and efficient way to collect and process these complaints, dissatisfaction and information.

2. One of the important thing in fraud investigation is timing. When perpetrators find their circumstance has been compromised by somebody who learned about the misdeeds, the evidence would be destroyed and deleted immediately.

3. Nowadays, almost every organization use computer to deal with different issues everyday, and at the same time computer files and hard drives are at equal risk for corruption and deletion if the organization do not have an effective way to preserving these documents and data in a timely fashion. Therefore, to establish a reliable and secure backups of the drives creates a secondary plan in the event files are deleted or computer drives are deleted.

4. It is important to have an initial discussion at the beginning of an investigation into a potential fraud matter identifying different investigative options. To manage a client’s expectation are very necessary as well. Also, the sense of urgency should be put on two initial areas: preserving critical potential evidence and securing assets, bank accounts, investments, and other means for restitution.

5. To involve human resources personnel within the victim organization is equally important to counsel. In details, targets of investigations should be subject to employment policies and procedures of the victim organization. Targets of inquiries and fraud investigations are often placed on paid administrative leave pending the outcome of the investigation, which need to preserve both the integrity of the individual and the integrity of the investigation.

6. In every fraud investigation, legal counsel also plays a very significant. No privilege exists between a client and an accountant, or a client and a fraud investigator. To some extent, all communications should be directly to counsel, and all work performed should be clearly marked confidential and attorney client privileged, in order to preserve the privilege between the client and counsel.


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MANY OF MY FRIENDS and acquaintances are still reluctant to use their credit-card numbers on the Internet, even to buy from well-known merchants over secure connections, and even when their credit-card issuers offer full protection against fraudulent charges. This side of the Internet fraud problem has received much more attention than the other side: that Internet merchants have no really effective way to protect themselves against credit-card fraud.
Standard credit-card processing software will give the merchant an approval if the card account is valid, and has enough open credit to cover the sale. For cards issued by U.S. banks, there is an additional security feature called Address Verification System, or AVS. This compares the billing address associated with the card with the one entered by the merchant. The system works fairly well for goods shipped to billing addresses in the U.S.
But there are two major gaps in protection. First, and most seriously, there is no AVS for cards issued by foreign banks. In other words, there is no way for a merchant to use the standard credit-card processing system to guarantee that a foreign credit-card transaction is valid. This forces them to use heuristic, and sometimes arbitrary, measures for fraud screening. My company, for example, won't fulfill orders from Romania, having been burned a few times too many. Customers with hotmail or other free, Web-based e-mail accounts have a point or two against them. Express shipping, ordering many items, and ordering the latest games (instead of reference or educational software) all reduce the likelihood that we'll accept the order. The case is similar for U.S. cards when the goods are shipped to an address other than the card's billing address.
If we guess wrong and ship an order that turns out to be fraudulent - we usually find out months later - we get a "chargeback," meaning that the amount we received for the order is taken back from us. If we guess wrong the other way, refusing to ship a legitimate order, we risk alienating potential customers. My company manages to keep its chargbacks very low, but it's frustrating to be in this situation where there is no way to avoid doing the wrong thing from time to time. There are commercial fraud-screening services that filter credit-card transactions automatically, applying these and other checks, but they are not perfect. We have had limited success referring fraudulent transactions to collection agencies.

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MLA Citation:
"Fraud." 11 Mar 2018

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How can Internet credit-card thieves work with such impunity? After all, they must give their addresses in order to receive their ill-gotten goods. Part of the answer is that most of the crimes are difficult enough to prove and small enough in magnitude that they're never reported to the police. Even if they were, the police wouldn't bother with them. I'd like to propose the establishment of an international online clearing-house for information about these crimes, funded in part by Mastercard, Visa and American Express. It would allow defrauded merchants to submit fraud reports electronically, making the reports easily accessible to law-enforcement officials in all jurisdictions. I'd also like to see more funds budgeted for catching and prosecuting Internet criminals.
Also to blame is the anything-goes, wild-west culture of the Internet. For some, credit-card thievery is a game like hacking into computers, totally disconnected from real life. I hope that, as more generations grow up with the Internet, young people can be taught that the Internet is part of the fabric of life, and that actions taken via computer are just as real, and have just as real consequences as actions taken in person.
Why can't we have AVS that works for overseas cards? I can understand why it might be hard for Romanian banks to implement, but why not in France and Finland?
Some form of strong authentication of the purchaser would also help with the problem. The Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) protocol, which would have provided this, seems to be dead now. I applaud American Express for issuing its cool new Blue smart-card credit card which, when used with a smart-card reader, can definitively authenticate the purchaser to a merchant who is properly set up. Another possibility would be to redesign the Internet to strongly authenticate all users. I'll discuss this in another column.