Writing a Good Conclusion Paragraph
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In a conclusion paragraph, you summarize what you’ve written about in your paper. When you’re writing a good conclusion paragraph, you need to think about the main point that you want to get across and be sure it’s included. If you’ve already written a fabulous introductory paragraph, you can write something similar with different wording. Here are some points to remember.
Use your introductory paragraph as a guide. You may have started by saying, “There are three classes at school that I absolutely can’t wait to go to every day.” You can start your conclusion by saying, “Gym, Math, and Art are the three classes I try to never miss.”
If it’s a longer paper, a good place to start is by looking at what each paragraph was about. For example, if you write a paper about zoo animals, each paragraph would probably be about one particular animal. In your conclusion, you should briefly mention each animal again. “Zoo animals like polar bears, lions, and giraffes are amazing creatures.”
Leave your readers with something to think about. Suggest that they learn more with a sentence like, “We have a lot to learn about global warming.” You can also give them something to do after reading your paper. For example, “It’s easy to make your own popsicles. Grab some orange juice and give it a try!”
To sum up, remember that it’s important to wrap up your writing by summarizing the main idea for your readers. This brings your writing to a smooth close and creates a well-written piece of work.
What is a conclusion?
- A conclusion is what you will leave with your reader
- It “wraps up” your essay
- It demonstrates to the reader that you accomplished what you set out to do
- It shows how you have proved your thesis
- It provides the reader with a sense of closure on the topic
- A conclusion is the opposite of the introduction
- Remember that the introduction begins general and ends specific
- The conclusion begins specific and moves to the general
- So, if we use shapes to demonstrate the essay’s content, it would look like this:
Body of Essay
Rephrased thesis statement
What to include
- Your conclusion wraps up your essay in a tidy package and brings it home for your reader
- Your topic sentence should summarize what you said in your thesis statement
- This suggests to your reader that you have accomplished what you set out to accomplish
- Do not simply restate your thesis statement, as that would be redundant
- Rephrase the thesis statement with fresh and deeper understanding
- Your conclusion is no place to bring up new ideas
- Your supporting sentences should summarize what you have already said in the body of your essay
- If a brilliant idea tries to sneak into the final paragraph, you must pluck it out and let it have its own paragraph in the body, or leave it out completely
- Your topic for each body paragraph should be summarized in the conclusion
- Your closing sentence should help the reader feel a sense of closure
- Your closing sentence is your last word on the subject; it is your “clincher”
- Demonstrate the importance of your ideas
- Propel your reader to a new view of the subject
- End on a positive note
- Your closing sentence should make your readers glad they read your paper
Strategies for an effective conclusion
- Play the “So What” Game.
- When you read a statement from the conclusion, ask yourself, “So what?” or “Why should anybody care?”
- Ponder that question and answer it
- Basically, I’m just saying that education was important to Douglass
- So what?
- Well, it was important because it was a key to him feeling like a free and equal citizen
- Why should anybody care?
- That’s important because plantation owners tried to keep slaves from being educated so that they could maintain control. When Douglass obtained an education, he undermined that control personally.
- Return to the theme or themes in the introduction
- This brings the reader full circle
- If you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay is helpful in creating a new understanding
- Refer to the introductory paragraph by using key words, or parallel concepts and images that you also used in the introduction
- Include a brief summary of the paper’s main points, but don’t simply repeat things that were in the paper
- Pull it all together
- Show your reader how the points you made and the support and examples you used fit together
- Include a provocative insight or quotation from the research or reading you did for the paper
- Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for further study
- Point to broader implications
- A paper about the style of writer, Virginia Woolf, could point to her influence on other writers or later feminists
Concluding strategies that do not work
- Beginning with an unnecessary, overused phrase
- These may work in speeches, but they come across as wooden and trite in writing
- “in conclusion”
- “in summary”
- “in closing”
- “as shown in the essay”
- Stating the thesis for the very first time
- Introducing a new idea or subtopic in your conclusion
- Making sentimental, emotional appeals that are out of character with the rest of the paper
- Including evidence (quotations, statistics, etc.) that should be in the body of the paper
- “That’s My Story and I’m Sticking to It”
- Restates the thesis and is usually painfully short
- Does not push ideas forward
- Written when the writer can’t think of anything else to say
- In conclusion, Frederick Douglass was, as we have seen, a pioneer in American education, proving that education was a major force for social change with regard to slavery.
- “Sherlock Holmes”
- State the thesis for the first time in the conclusion
- Writer thinks it would be more dramatic to keep the reader in suspense and then “wow” them with the main idea, as in a Sherlock Holmes mystery
- Readers want an analytical discussion of the topic in academic style, with the thesis statement up front
- “America the Beautiful”
- Draws on emotion to make its appeal
- Out of character with the rest of the paper
- “Grab Bag”
- Includes extra information thought of or found but couldn’t integrate into the main body
- Creates confusion for the reader
- Topic sentence
- Fresh rephrasing of thesis statement
- Supporting sentences
- Summarize or wrap up the main points in the body of the essay
- Explain how ideas fit together
- Closing sentence
- Final words
- Connects back to the introduction
- Provides a sense of closure
More Concluding Paragraph Resources
Have you ever heard that different people learn in different ways? Well, it’s true.
And while some people may be able to learn just by reading the theories on how to do something, you learn differently—you need actual examples.
Just like a protester, politician, or superhero, I’m here to lead by example. I’ve put together a list of essay conclusion examples that covers a range of topics and essay formats to serve as a stepping stone for your own writing.
Why Do You Need a Strong Conclusion?
Before I get into the essay conclusion examples, you should know why writing a strong conclusion is so important. Your conclusion isn’t just a summary of what you’ve already written.
True, it’s a little bit about summarizing, but it should take your essay one step further. Your conclusion should answer any unresolved questions and end your essay with a bang!
In short, an awesome essay conclusion is super important because it rounds out your essay and makes it feel complete.
Now on to the good stuff…
Analytical Essay Conclusion Examples
Topic #1: Analyze the theme of compassion for one character in the Hunger Games series.
The obvious choices for compassion in the Hunger Games may be Katniss or Peeta, but the character who personifies compassion best was Prim. Throughout the series, her compassion is seen when she keeps secrets from her mother for Katniss, when she heals Gale after he gets whipped, and through the last act of her life as she rushes to save children in the Capitol. She truly lives Albert Schweitzer’s words, “The purpose of human life is to serve, and to show compassion and the will to help others.”
Topic #2: What caused the Civil War?
The importance of each cause of the American Civil War can be debated, but what is fact is that there were several factors that led the South to secede. Slavery, states’ rights, and the election of Abraham Lincoln to the presidency—even though no state in the South voted for him—all contributed to the war. While it has been nearly 150 years since the Civil War ended, some of the leftover divide between North and South can still be seen in modern America.
Topic #3: Analyze Facebook’s influence on America’s youth.
Though social media allows young users to connect with people across the world and get instantaneous news about the world around them, it also has come with many complications. From access to inaccurate information to the rise of cyberbullying, the bad can sometimes outweigh the good among younger users. With 73% of young Americans ages 12-17 years old using Facebook, it may be time to devise better rules for promoting responsible use.
Topic #4: Analyze the theme of disguise in The Taming of the Shrew.
The theme of disguise in The Taming of the Shrew is evident from the very beginning. The play within a play lets the reader know that every character is an actor. The main characters—Kate, Bianca, and Petruchio—all disguise their true identities and intentions for the same reason: to get what they want.
(Learn how to write an analytical essay outline.)
Expository Essay Conclusion Examples
Topic #5: Explain how to write an essay conclusion.
Essay conclusions are pretty simple once you know the framework. It all boils down to three main parts: a transition from the last body paragraph, a summary of the thesis statement and main points of the essay, and a closing statement that wraps everything up. If all students knew this simple formula, maybe essay writing would be easier for everyone.
Want extra guidance with the conclusion framework? Read How to Write a Killer Essay Conclusion.
Topic #6: What is the scientific method?
The scientific method is common sense. First, a person must have a research question he or she wants answered and a little background knowledge on the subject. Then the person forms a hypothesis, or what he or she thinks the answer to the research question is, which the person tests with an experiment. Finally, the person should analyze the data and draw a conclusion. This method can be used both in and out of the scientific realm, testing everything from history to social issues.
Topic #7: What are the causes of homelessness?
Passing by a homeless person is not uncommon, especially in urban settings. Homelessness can be caused by many factors, including job loss, lack of family support, and the diminishing availability of affordable housing. Although it is easy for some to think that homelessness is caused by mental problems or general laziness, there are other factors to consider. Only when the whole scope of the problem is known can society begin to come up with a comprehensive solution.
Topic #8: What is the main cause of global warming?
Most scientists agree that global warming is due to the rapid rise of greenhouse gases since the Industrial Revolution. While some may argue that factory farms are the main cause of global warming and others may say it is modern society’s transportation methods, the main cause is clear: mankind.
(Learn more about writing expository essays.)
Narrative Essay Conclusion Examples
Topic #9: Write about what it would be like to be put into the pages of Romeo and Juliet.
Being catapulted into the pages of Romeo and Juliet would definitely come with some culture shock. Men would be carrying swords and fighting each other in the street. Girls would be getting married at 13 years old. Had I the knowledge of what would become of the star-crossed lovers, I would have warned Romeo that Juliet’s death was a hoax and to wait until she woke up. This, of course, would make the play quite different, but I would feel that it was my duty after having spent so much time with the characters.
Topic #10: A time machine has taken you back to meet your favorite author (Edgar Allan Poe in this case). Write about that meeting.
As Edgar and I were discussing the common themes and dark imagery of his works, the waiter interrupted us. I reached for the wine decanter, poured myself a glass, and asked if he would like some.
“No thanks,” he said, laughing grimly. “After all, it might be poisoned.”
Topic #11: Tell about your proudest moment.
Standing up for my little brother made me feel like the character who everyone likes in those after-school sitcoms. I was able to confront the kid who was bullying my little brother without using threats or physical force. In the end, encouraging the two to have an open dialogue brought them closer, and while they may never be best friends, at least they can respect each other.
Topic #12: Write about an event that made you who you are today.
My abuse did not and does not define me, but I would not be the same person had I not gone through it. It took a while and there were setbacks, but I’m a stronger, more compassionate person because of the traumatic events that happened. I hope others never have to go through the same thing I did, but if they do, I hope they can learn from my example and find the help they need to change their situation for the better.
(Learn more about writing narrative essays.)
Persuasive Essay Conclusion Examples
Topic #13: Should Hermione have ended up with Harry instead of Ron in the Harry Potter series?
Harry may be the main character of the Harry Potter series and J.K. Rowling may have stated recently that even she thinks Hermione and Harry should have ended up together, but the characters are much too similar. They are both natural leaders, which would create a lot of relationship tension. Ron, on the other hand, is the Type B to balance Hermione’s Type A personality. Since Harry ended up with Ron’s sister, Ginny, all three main characters are married into the same family. That certainly would make holiday get-togethers much more entertaining.
Topic #14: Should college education be free?
The amount of student loan debt is an indication that something is definitely wrong with the system. Although universities need an income to survive, getting a college education should still come at no direct cost to the student. Free education would allow for a more educated nation as a whole, it would leave some students with more time to work more on their studies than their jobs, and it could encourage universities to get more creative. If more universities embraced the Pay It Forward model, the United States might become one of the most educated countries in the world.
Topic #15: What is the most important thing high school students should be learning but aren’t?
There are many areas where public high school education could improve, but the most important is financial planning. While some may argue for better nutrition or fitness programs, that information is easily available online and even in commercials—and should actually be taught starting in elementary school. Stronger financial planning curricula would teach high schoolers how to establish credit, how to save for retirement, and how to budget. All of these are important for life in the real world but can be filled with confusing jargon and advertising schemes. With Americans having more than $11 trillion in debt, it is time the younger generation be taught how not to be another statistic.
Topic #16: Should kids get participation trophies?
Many Baby Boomers believe that participation trophies serve as a symbol of millennials’ sense of entitlement. In reality, the participation trophy does not diminish any sense of competition or drive for improvement. When there are performance-based awards in addition to participation awards, it mirrors the real world where average-performing employees still get paid and well-performing people get bonuses, raises, and promotions.
(Learn more about writing persuasive essays.)
Argumentative Essay Conclusion Examples
Topic #17: Should nuclear weapons be banned in all countries?
Because of the political tensions between different countries, it is not likely that a worldwide ban on nuclear weapons would be followed by every world leader. It is important that other countries be able to protect themselves from potential attacks with equally strong weapons. However, more limitations on testing and launch authorizations should be enforced to ensure hot-headed leaders do not use or even advertise these dangerous weapons simply as a show of force.
Topic #18: Are pre-employment drug tests an invasion of privacy?
Although companies need to hire capable, dependable employees, they should not be able to dictate what their employees do in the comfort of their own homes. There are better ways of determining whether someone is right for a position, including education, past employment, personal and professional references, and trial periods.
Topic #19: Should prisoners have the right to vote?
Although some people fear that granting prisoners the right to vote may lead to more relaxed laws surrounding specific crimes, prisoners are part of the American population. A truly democratic process includes everyone’s voices, even those who have made mistakes.
Topic #20: Should parents be allowed to spank their children?
Spanking has become an outdated and lazy way of punishing children. It teaches them that meeting other people’s bad behavior with violence is acceptable. If children are old enough to understand why they are being spanked, they are old enough to think about their bad behavior logically and understand why it was wrong.
(Learn more about writing argumentative essays.)
A Final Word on Final Paragraphs
As you probably noticed given the variety of essay conclusion examples above, there are a lot of ways to end an essay. Generally, there will be a summary, but narrative essays might carry an exception.
These types of essays allow you to be more creative with your conclusion. You should still try to end the essay with a sense of closure even if, as in the case of Topic #8, this means ending on a somewhat ominous note.
No matter how you learn, it’s pretty helpful to have practical examples. And now that you do, you can get to finishing your own essay.
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