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1Cf. also Vernant, J.-P., Mythe et société en Grèce ancienne (Paris1974) 110.

2 Contemporary scholars do allow significant variations in some divine personalities in some of the colonies, where they attribute them, usually unsupported by any evidence, to the notorious ‘indigenous influences’. Against the approach that assumes many take-overs of indigenous cults by Greek colonists in cases where there is no explicit evidence for such a phenomenon cf.Pugliese-Carratelli, G., Convegno Magna Greciaiv (1964) 19–28; Pembroke, S., Annales: Economies, Sociétés, Civilizationsv (1970) 1255–8.

3 The (interrelated) spheres in which a divine personality manifests itself are the following. The sphere of divine name, with its subordinate sphere of epithet; that of Bildvorstellung, including the attributes; the sphere of myth; the sphere of cult, involving a deity as a recipient of worship; that of theology in the sense of sets of beliefs about the functions and areas of activity of the deity; and finally, the sphere of ‘ideology’, derivative from the previous one, primarily through the agency of literature, involving the deity as an embodiment of certain ideas and concepts.

4 On the Greek Dark Ages cf.Snodgrass, A. M., The Dark Age of Greece (Edinburgh1971); Desborough, V. R. d'A., The Greek Dark Ages (London1972).

5Cf.Brelich, A., Atti e Memorie del Primo Congresso Internazionale di Micenologia (Rome1968) 922.

6Cf. Brelich, op. cit.

7Cf. S. Pembroke, op. cit., passim.

8 Publications of pinakes: Orsi, P., BdAiii (1909) 1–43; Quagliati, Q., Ausoniaiii (1908) 136–234; Zancani Montuoro, P., Archivio storico per la Calabria e la Lucaniav (1935) 195 ff.; id., RIA vii (1940) 205–24; id., RAAN xxix (1954) 79–86; id., Atti SocMGrec 1954 (hereafter Note) 71–106; id., ASCL xxiv (1955) 283–308; id., ArchClass xii (1960) 37–50; id., Marsyas. Essays in memory of K. Lehmann (New York 1964) 386–95; Prückner, H., Die lokrischen Tonreliefs (Mainz1968). Cf. also A. W. Oldfather, RE s.v. ‘Lokroi’; id., Philol. lxix (1910) 114–25; id., Philol. lxxi (1912) 321–31. I have briefly discussed the circumstances of the pinakes in JHS xciv (1974) 132–4.

9Cf.Giannelli, G., Culti e miti della Magna Grecia2 (1963) 187–204; Prückner, op. cit., 4–7; Montuoro, Zancani, RendAccLincei1959, 227 n. 5.

10Cf.Montuoro, Zancani, RendAccLincei1959, 227.

11 Orsi, op. cit. (n. 8); id., NSc 1909, 321–2; NSc 1911 Suppl. 67–76; Zancani Montuoro, op. cit. (n. 9), 225–32; de Franciscis, A., Richerche sulla topografia e i monumenti di Locri Epizefiri (Naples1971) 75–9.

12 I have discussed this problem briefly in JHS xciv (1974) 133.

13op. cit., 63, 68.

14Cf.Boardman, J., CRxxi (1971) 144–5; Zuntz, G., Gnomonxliii (1971) 492–4.

15Cf. Boardman, op. cit.

16Cf. JHS xciv (1974) 133.

17BdA iii 28 figs. 36–7; Prückner 75 fig. 13; pl. 12.

18Cf. Prückner 70 type 59.

19h. Hom. Dem. 6 ff.

20 On Hades' Bildvorstellung cf.Arias, P. E. in EAAiii1081—2; Γ. Ι. Δεσπίνη, Συμβολὴ στὴ μελέτη τοῦ ἔργου τοῦ Ἀγορακρίτου (Athens 1971) 139–40.

21BdA iii figs. 30–5; Ausonia iii figs. 18–23; Prückner 71 fig. 12 and pls. 13–21. 1–3; RAAN xxix 1954 pl. viii.

22BICS xx (1973) 12–21.

23op. cit. (n. 8).

24 I should note that in ASCL xxiv (1955) 299 n. 2 Zancani Montuoro, while talking about a different type of scene, makes a tentative remark which to some extent points in the same direction: ‘Può darsi peraltro, ma poco giova l'indovinare, che il quadretto fosse offerto da una sposa locrese, che le sue nozze intendeva assimilare a quelle della dea per invocarne la protezione.’ However, she is clearly thinking in terms of an ad hoc dedication rather than of an established cult function of the goddess.

25Cf.Farnell, L. R., The Cults of the Greek Statesi (Oxford1896) 188–92.

26 Since the objects held by the girl were appropriate to this ritual occasion which belonged to Persephone's sphere, it follows that they were connected with Persephone's cult.

27BdA iii 10 fig. 8; Note pl. xxiii; Prückner 76 fig. 14 and pl. 22; cf. also Prückner 75–6.

28BdA iii 8 fig. 5; 9 fig. 7; 11 figs. 9–10; 12 fig. 11; Note pls. xiii–xxii; Prückner pls. 23–30.4. Cf. Note 79–90; Prückner 77–81.

29 Cf. Note 83.

30 Cf. Note 83–4.

31 Zancani Montuoro (Note 86) interprets the scene illustrated in Prückner 47 fig. 7 as Ares paying homage to Persephone. However, the presence of a c. 12 year-old girl in the scene suggests that this is a representation of a very different kind (cf. infra). Her suggestion concerning a presence of Artemis (in the scene illustrated in BdA fig. 14) is also unlikely to be correct. For the ‘spotted’ peplos worn by the offering figure connects this scene with another series, that of the ‘offering girls’ (cf. infra).

32op. cit. 79.

33 Cf. Note 89, Cf. also op. cit. 85 and Prückner 155 n. 592 with reference to the scene illustrated in BdA iii fig. 5.

34Note 89.

35 As Zancani Montuoro has suggested (op. cit.).

36Cf.Dunbabin, T. J., The Western Greeks (Oxford1948) 168–9.

37Cf.Vallet, G., Rhégion et Zancle (Paris1958) 310–11.

38Note 90.

39op. cit. 80.

40op. cit. 80–1. He suggested that the scenes show the presentation of deities newly arrived at Locri to the old established deities Persephone and Hades; Aphrodite is acting as their patron in this presentation because their cults were annexed to hers. I need hardly point out that this interpretation depends on a series of wholly unsupported assumptions. But it may be worth mentioning that there is no iconographie parallel for such a situation; while there are parallels for deities paying homage to a divine bridal couple, albeit shown in a different iconographie scheme, that of procession. On this last point cf. also Note 90.

41Note 90.

42op. cit. 80.

43Cf.Giannelli, , Culti187–210.

44 For the cult of Zeus at Locri cf. Giannelli, op. cit. and de Franciscis, A., Stato e società in Locri Epizefiri. L'archivio dell'Olympieion locrese (Naples1972) 143–58.

45Cf. Prückner 79.

46 On Persephone's association with the stalk of grain cf.Conticello, B., EAAiv386–94.

47 Orsi, BdA iii 14; cf. also Lissi, E., Atti SocMGrecia1961, 92 no. 91.

48 I have discussed this matter in CQ xxiv (1974) 189–90 where a bibliography can also be found.

49Cf.Andronikou, M., Pelopomtisiakai (1956) 253–314passim and esp. 305.

50Cf. the most interesting article by Hoffmann, in RA (1974) 195–220; cf. especially 204–6.

51Cf. Hoffmann, op. cit. 213–14. For the cock as offering to the dead cf.Stengel, P., Opferbräuche der Griechen (Leipzig1910) 142, 152, 192; Keller, O., Die antike Tierweltii (Leipzig1920) 140.

52Cf. Lissi, op. cit. 96 no. 111, pl. xli.

53 On the significance of the ball cf. G.Schneider-Herrmann, , BABeschxlvi (1971) 123–33. Cf. also O. Brendel, MDAl(R) li (1936) 80–9. Cf. also the Attic black-figure ball belonging to a hetaira which bears a funerary inscription published in BMusFineArts lxi (1963) 20–2 by Dr H. Hoffmann who kindly drew my attention to the object. Cf. also Neutsch, B., Apolloi (1961) 53–66.

54 Cf. Anth. Pal. vi 280.

55 Balls have been discovered in tombs; cf. n. 53 and Schneider-Herrmann op. cit. 131 n. 38. It is not impossible that balls made of perishable materials were also placed in tombs and have not survived.

56 Orsi, NSc 1911 suppl. 71; cf. also Lissi, op. cit. 96 no. 112, pl. xli.

57 Orsi, NSc 1890, 262. Prückner is mistaken in thinking that the same figurines hold both dove and pomegranate (Prückner, op. cit. 30).

58Cf. Andronikou, op. cit. 305.

59Cf.Studniczka, F., JdIxxvi (1911) 129, 141.

60Cf.Conticello, B., EAAiv390. Because of its fertility aspect it can also, in some places, be associated with other goddesses (cf. e.g. for Hera: Paus, ii 17.4).

61 Cf. h. Hom. Dem. 371–4, 411–13. It is interesting to note that this hymn was known at Locri and is reflected in one of the scenes on the pinakes (cf. Prückner 82–4 and 82 fig. 15; cf. also The Homeric Hymn to Demeter, ed. Richardson, N. J. (Oxford1974) 168–9.

62 Orsi, BdA iii 15.

63Note 80 n. 2.

64ARV2 459, 3; Pfuhl, E., Malerei und Zeichnung der Griechen (Munich1923) 111 fig. 437.

65Cf. D'Arcy Thompson, W., A Glossary of Greek Birds (Oxford1936) 329.

66 Paus, ix 39.2.

67Cf. Andronikou 305. Andronikou, op. cit., passim has argued convincingly that the seated figures are Underworld deities and not heroised dead.

68CfSimon, E., Opfernde Götter (Berlin1953) 7.

69Cf. also Gernet, L., Anthropologie de la Grèce antique (Paris1968) 43 on the general connection between marriage rites and flowers and flower-picking.

70Orsi, , BdAiii15, 36.

71 For figurines: BdA iii 14; for the ‘maschera’: op. cit. 13.

72 Strabo vi 256.

73 i 1.37.

74Note 102.

75 A flower is also associated with the couple of Underworld deities on the Laconian reliefs (cf. Andronikou, op. cit. 305).

76 Cf. BdA iii 31 fig. 42; Ausonia iii, fig. 72; Prückner 58 fig. 10 (and pp. 58–60); cf. also Note 98–9, where Zancani Montuoro reads the objects as fruit, pomegranates and quinces; and cf.Neutsch, B., MDAI(R)lx–lxi (1953/4) 62–74.

77op. cit.

78Cf. Zancani Montuoro op. cit.; for the pomegranate cf. also supra.

79 Orsi, BdA iii 37.

80Cf.Richter, G. M. A. and Milne, M. J., Shapes and Names of Athenian Vases (New York1935) 14, 15 and illustration on p. 17; Simon, E., Die Geburt der Aphrodite (Berlin1959) 64, 68 fig. 40. The kalathos also had an important place in some cults of Demeter (cf.Nilsson, M. P., Griechische Feste von religiöser Bedeutung (Leipzig1906) 350–2; cf. also Longo, A., EAAiv295.

81Cf. Hesych. s.v. Ἠροσάνθεια; Phot. s.v. Ἠροάνθια.

82Cf. n. 69.

83 It is conceivable that the naked female figurines with pronounced erect breasts found in the sanctuary of Persephone (BdA iii 14) may also have connotations of fertility.

84 Prückner, who describes it (op. cit. 77, type 88), lumps it together with one of his two series of offering girls. His division of the cycle of the offering girls into two series, one of which he attributes to Aphrodite and the other to Persephone, is purely arbitrary. As will be apparent from the discussion, there is a fundamental unity in the series, and the symbols and cult objects firmly establish that the goddess involved is always Persephone.

85 Described in Prückner 77.

86 The poppy is associated with Demeter (cf. Steier in RE s.v. ‘Mohn’ 2445).

87Cf. Prückner 65, type 51.

88cf.Schelp, , Das Kanoun, der griechische Opferkorb (Würzburg1975) 11; 25–6 and passim; cf. also Deubner, L., JdIxl (1925) 210–23.

89op. cit. 77.

90 Described op. cit. 77.

91Orsi, , BdAiii39.

92 A deep phiale and wand are held by a priestess in a series of scenes showing processions involving girls which I will discuss below.

93Note 94–5.

94op. cit. 49.

95Cf. also Prückner 49; he does not distinguish this from the previous type.

96op. cit.

97Cf.Buschor, E., Die Musen des Jenseits (Munich1944)passim.

98 In one (BdA iii 21 fig. 25; Prückner 43 fig. 5, Prückner's type 16, p. 42), the phialophoros precedes the girls, in the other (BdA 22 fig. 26; ArchClass xii, pl. ii; Prückner's type 17, p. 42), she follows. The peplos is held differently in each case.

99BdA iii 16 fig. 17; ArchClass xii pls. i, iii; cf. Prückner 43–4.

100BdA iii 17 fig. 18; ArchClass xii pls. iv 3; v 1–2.

101 Described in Note 93 and Prückner 45–6.

102 Prückner pl. 4.4.

103 Cf. Note 90–102; ArchClass xii 40–5; Cf. also id., ASCL xxiv (1955) 283–308.

104Note 93.

105 On this group cf. Prückner 31–6.

106Cf. Prückner op. cit.

107op. cit. 32.

108 Whether we understand the symbols and objects as present in the sanctuary in the course of this cult activity (or in the location of the mythological event if the scenes show a myth), or added by the artist, in order to determine the cultic sphere, or enrich the scene, they must have belonged to the same cultic sphere as the ritual (or myth) depicted. For even if they were added with the simple purpose of enriching the scene their choice would have been determined by the nexus of associations between cultic sphere and cult objects and symbols in the artist's mind.

109 The taenia does appear elsewhere sporadically, but the discussion of these scenes is beyond my present scope. I believe that the taenia is not cultically fixed in one or the other sphere, for it seems to occur in both.

110BdA iii 19 fig. 22; op. cit. 20 fig. 23.

111 Cf. Note 93; Prückner 45–6.

112BdA iii 19 fig. 21.

113Quagliati, (Ausoniaiii195–6) was reminded of Erichthonios and thought in terms of a myth parallel to his. Oldfather, (Philol.lxix [1910] 121–2) thought of Dionysos, but considered it also possible that the scenes show symbolically the birth of a child, considered as an offering of the gods as well as the product of the parents. Later (Philol. lxxi [1912] 325–6) he opted for lakchos, a view also favoured by Orsi, (BdAiii30–1) and Pagen-stecher, (Eros und Psyche, SBHeidelberg1911, 14. Putorti, , Italia antichissima n.s. xi (1937) 3—11, identified the child as Dionysos or lakchos, , Studniczka, , JdIxxvi (1911) 143, as Adonis, a view embraced by Ashmole, (Late Archaic and Early Classical Greek Sculpture in Sicily and South Italy, from PBAxx, separately printed, London1936, 17) and Higgins, , Catalogue of the Terracottas in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities of the British Museum (London1954–1959) i no. 1219. Prückner (op. cit. 32–4) argued against all these theories and suggested that the scenes show Aphrodite and Dionysos.

114 On the presentation of children to deities cf.Kontoleon, N. M., Aspects de la Grèce préclassique (Paris1970) 1–21, passim;id., ArchEph 1974 13–25; Lambrinu-dakis, W., Μηροτραφης (Athens1971) 218–28; id., AAA ix (1976) 108–19; Walter, O., Beschreibung der Reliefs im kleinen Akropolismuseum in Athen (Vienna1923) 32; id., ArchEph 1937 i 103; id., ÖJh xxx (1937) 59 ff.; cf. also Guarducci, M., L'istituzione della fratria nella Grecia antica e nelle colonie greche d'Italia (Rome1937–8) 37–8.

115Cf. Kontolcon, Aspects pl. vi; ArchEph 1974 pl. 5y; cf. also Aspects 10. n. 1, 17.

116Cf.Ashmole, JHSxlii (1922) 248, 252.

117 Kontoleon, Aspects pl. i; ArchEph 1974 pl. i Kontoleon has argued very convincingly that this relicl represents a presentation of children in Aspects 1–21 and again, refuting the objections of Rühfel, (AntKxvii [1974] 42–9) in ArchEph 1974, 13–25. Lambrinudakis, (AAAix [1976] 108–19) has completed Kontoleon's case.

118Callipolitis-Feytmans, D., BCHxciv (1970) 45–65; Jucker, I., AntKvi (1963) 47–61; cf. also Lambrinudakis, Μηροτραφής218–28, who argued conclusively in favour of interpreting the scenes as presentations of children to the kourotrophic deity.

119 Kontoleon, Aspects pl. iv; ArchEph 1974 pl. 6 and p. 20.

120 Walter, Beschreibung 32 no. 3030; ArchEph 1974 pl. 4.

121ArchEph 1937 i 102 fig. 1 and 101–3.

122Nilsson, M. P., Geschichte der griechischen Religion3 (Munich1967) 317; cf. also Becatti, G., EAAiii419–20.

123Cf.Apollod., Bibl.iii14.4.

124Cf. also Montuoro, Zancani, RendAccLincei1959227–8; Demeter appears on the type of pinax which reflects the Homeric Hymn to Demeter (illustrated in Prückner 82 fig. 15; cf. also supra n. 61).

125 On Hera at Foce del Sele cf. Zanotti-Bianco in Montuoro, P. Zancani and Zanotti-Bianco, U., Heraion alla Foce del Selei (Rome1951) 14–18.

126Cf. e.g. BdA iii 24 fig. 28; Prückner 53 fig. 9.

127BdA iii 12 fig. 12; Prückner pl. 1.1.

128 On the flower cf. Prückner 16.

129op. cit.

130Ausonia iii 189 fig. 41; Prückner pl. 2.

131Cf. discussion in Prückner 22–7.

132Ausonia iii 191 fig. 42; cf. Prückner 67–8.

133Ausonia iii 212 fig. 60; 213 fig. 61; Prückner 37 fig. 4; cf.Montuoro, Zancani, Marsyas386–95 (and figs. 4–7); cf. also Prückner 36–8.

134RIA vii pl. 1; fig. 2; Prückner 17 fig. 1; pl. 1.2; cf.Montuoro, Zancani, RIAvii (1940) 205–24; Prückner 17–19.

135 Prückner type 2A, op. cit. 135 n. 107.

136BdA iii 13 fig. 13.

137 On Eros cults cf.Farnell, L. R., The Cults of the Greek Statesv (Oxford1909) 445–6, 476–7; Schneider-Herrmann, G., BABeschxlv (1970) 86–117passim and esp. 87–8.

138Cf. Schneider-Herrmann, op. cit., esp. 105.

139 On the iconography of Eros cf.Greifenhagen, A., Griechische Eroten (Berlin1957); Richter, G. M. A., ArchClassx (1958) 255–7; Speier, E. in EAAiii426–33.

140Cf.Farnell, , CoGSii (1896) 652–3.

141 Cf. EAA i 116; RE s.v. ‘Taube’.

142 Cf. EAA i 116,119. The wild dove, φάσσα, was associated with Persephone (cf.Keller, O., Die antike Tierweltii123).

143Cf. bibliography in Prückner 134 n. 114; to this should be added Nilsson, , CGrR3503, and especially a recently discovered sanctuary of Hermes and Aphrodite at Kato Syme Viannou in Crete, which is in the process of being excavated (cf.Lebessi, A., AAAvi (1973) 104–14; Ergon 1973, 118–23; Ergon 1974, 118–21; Ergon 1975, 171–5; Praktika 1972, 193–203; Praktika 1973, 188–98; Praktika 1974, 222–7); in this sanctuary Hermes appears to be closely connected with trees and animals, wild goats, billy-goats, hares.

144 On this last demiurgic aspect of Aphrodite cf. Aesch. fr. 44 N2; Sophokles fr. 855 N2; Eurip. fr. 898 N2.

145Cf.Buschor, E., MDAI(A)lxxii (1957) 77; Nilsson, , GGrR3503.

146op. cit. 22.

147 Prückner (op. cit. 29) has misunderstood this significance. He talks as though the representation involved two animals copulating and misses the element of bestiality when he takes the relief to be a reference to Aphrodite's power, through love, in the animal as well as the human world.

148 I have discussed this votum in some detail in CQ xxiv (1974) 186–96.

149Cf. previous note.

150 Prückner 47 fig. 7.

151Note 86.

152 I should note that in other cities Aphrodite is sometimes associated with marriage, the family and the polis structures (cf. Farnell, op. cit. ii 655–7). Nilsson, (GGrR3524), who denies this, has conflated evidence from different parts of the Greek world and treated it as though it came from one cultic unit.

* This article is an enlarged version of a paper delivered at the Triennial Conference of the Greek and Roman Societies in Oxford on ist August, 1975. I would like to thank Dr H. Hoffmann for reading, and commenting on, that early version.

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