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Gossypium Arboretum Classification Essay

Authors:  (Stella K. Kantartzi, Dept. Plant, Soil, and Agricultural Systems, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, USA)
The Malvaceae family consists of several genera of flowering plants that are characterized in general by five showy petals and five green sepals and by numerous stamens that are fused at the base to form a tube around the pistil. Most species in the family are herbs or shrubs, but some are trees. There are more than 100 genera, with close to 1500 species in the family, depending on the classification of some of the genera. The best recognized genera include Malva, Abutilon, Althaea, Lavatera, Abelmoschus, Malope, and Hibiscus, while others are grown as garden plants in many regions of the world. Several are pest species in agriculture, including Abutilon theophrasti, Modiola caroliniana and others that are garden escapes (Vyscokiji, 1956). Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important agricultural crop of the family.
Cotton (Gossypium spp.), often called the king of fibers, is the most important textile crop economically and the world‘s second most important oilseed crop after soybean. Of the 50 known species of Gossypium, 45 species are diploid (2n = 2x = 26) and five are allotetraploids (2n = 4x = 52) (Brubaker et al. 1999a). The diploid species with genome A being known as Asiatic cottons (Gossypium herbaceum and Gossypium arboreum) and the tetraploid species of genome AD referred to as New World cottons (G. hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense) are the only cultivated species of cotton. Among the cultivated species, G. hirsutum has the highest yield potential and is the largest globally cultivated species with about 90% contribution to the world cotton market. The next in importance is G. barbadense which is a donor for good quality fiber. The two cultivated diploid species, G. arboreum and G. herbaceum have wide adaptability and high degree of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses (Patel and Mehta 1990; Katagiri et al. 2004). The wild diploid species are grouped into seven genomic groups, designated B-G and K based on chromosomal similarities, and distributed tropically and subtropically in a geographically related manner (Endrizzi et al. 1985; Stewart 1995). Each genome represents a group of morphologically similar species that can only rarely form hybrids with species from other genomic groups. Stewart (1995) assigned the Gossypium genome groups to primary, secondary, and tertiary gene pools. The wild forms of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense as well as the three other wild tetraploid species constitute the primary gene pool. The secondary gene pool consists of the extant relatives of the A and D progenitors of the allotetraploid subgenomes and the B and F genomes. The tertiary gene pool includes the African-Arabian E genome and the Australian C, G, and K genomes. 

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  Sunday 11 March, 2018       

Nova Science Publishers
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Members of the NF-YB transcription factor gene family play important roles in diverse processes related to plant growth and development, such as seed development, drought tolerance, and flowering time. However, the function of NF-YB genes in cotton remains unclear. A total of 23, 24, and 50 NF-YB genes were identified in Gossypium arboreum (G. arboreum), Gossypium raimondii (G. raimondii), and G. hirsutum, respectively. A systematic phylogenetic analysis was carried out in G. arboretum, G. raimondii, G. hirsutum, Arabidopsis thaliana, cacao, rice and, sorghum, where the 150 NF-YB genes were divided into five groups (α–ε). Of these groups, α is the largest clade, and γ contains the LEC1 type NF-YB proteins. Syntenic analyses revealed that paralogues of NF-YB genes in G. hirsutum exhibited good collinearity. Owing to segmental duplication within the A sub-genome (At) and D sub-genome (Dt), there was an expanded set of NF-YB genes in G. hirsutum. Furthermore, we investigated the structures of exons, introns, and conserved motifs of NF-YB genes in upland cotton. Most of the NF-YB genes had only one exon, and the genes from the same clade exhibited a similar motif pattern. Expression data show that most NF-YB genes were expressed ubiquitously, and only a few genes were highly expressed in specific tissues, as confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. The overexpression of GhDNF-YB22 gene, predominantly expressed in embryonic tissues, indicates that GhDNF-YB22 may affect embryogenesis in cotton. This study is the first comprehensive characterization of the GhNF-YB gene family in cotton, and showed that NF-YB genes could be divided into five clades. The duplication events that occurred over the course of evolution were the major impetus for NF-YB gene expansion in upland cotton. Collectively, this work provides insight into the evolution of NF-YB in cotton and further our knowledge of this commercially important species. View Full-Text

Keywords: genome-wide analysis; NF-YB transcription factor; Gossypium hirsutum; overexpression; embryogenesisgenome-wide analysis; NF-YB transcription factor; Gossypium hirsutum; overexpression; embryogenesis

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